Industrial raw materials
Ethanol has a wide range of USES, including:
Solvent; Organic synthesis; Crystallization of various compounds; The detergent. Extracting agent;
Alcohol can be mixed with liquor; Used as adhesive; Nitrocellulose spray paint; Varnish, cosmetics, ink, paint remover and other solvents and pesticides, medicine, rubber, plastic, artificial fiber, detergent manufacturing raw materials, but also can do antifreeze, fuel, disinfectant.
75% ethanol solution is commonly used for medical disinfection.
Alcohol with a volume fraction of 99.5% or more is called anhydrous alcohol. Use in biology: pigment in chloroplast can be dissolved in organic solvent anhydrous ethanol (or acetone), so anhydrous ethanol can be used to extract pigment in chloroplast.
Ninety-five percent alcohol is used to clean ultraviolet lamps. The alcohol is commonly used in hospitals, but is only used in homes to clean camera lenses.
70% to 75% alcohol is used for disinfection. This is because high concentrations of alcohol can form a protective coating on the surface of bacteria, preventing them from entering the body and making it difficult to kill them completely. If the alcohol concentration is too low, it can enter the bacteria, but it cannot coagulate the protein in the body, nor can it completely kill the bacteria. Among them 75% alcohol disinfects the effect best.
40% ~ 50% alcohol can prevent bedsore. The back of long-term bedridden patient, lumbar, coxal because be pressed for a long time can cause bedsore, if a few 40% ~ 50% alcohol is poured into the hand when massaging, even ground massages the place that the patient is pressed, can achieve stimulative local blood circulation, prevent the purpose that bedsore forms.
25% ~ 50% alcohol can be used for physical antipyretic. High fever patient can use its brush body, achieve the purpose that drops temperature. Because wipe skin with alcohol, can make the skin blood vessels of the patient dilate, increase the heat dissipation ability of the skin, alcohol evaporation, heat absorption, make the body surface temperature of the disease reduced, symptoms alleviate.
Caution: alcohol concentration should not be too high, otherwise it may irritate the skin and absorb a lot of moisture from the epidermis.
Ethanol is the main component of alcohol.
Note: the ethanol in the daily drinking wine is not added with ethanol, but produced by the fermentation of microorganisms. Of course, depending on the types of microorganisms used, there will be related substances such as acetic acid or sugar.
Liquor degrees of containing ethanol in alcohol volume percent (western mantra is commonly used in alcohol), usually in 20 ℃ when the volume is larger than that of said, as the wine of 50 degrees, said in 100 ml of wine, containing ethanol 50 ml (20 ℃). In addition, for beer, it means the concentration of raw material wort in beer production. Take beer of 12 as an example, the concentration of extract before fermentation of wort is 12%(weight ratio). The extract from wort is a mixture of many components, mainly maltose. The concentration of ethanol in beer is generally less than 10%.
Ethanol can be used to make acetaldehyde, ether, ethyl acetate, ethylamine and other chemical raw materials, but also to make, dye, paint, detergent and other products raw materials.
As early as the 19th century, modern bioenergy ethanol emerged. In 1902 the Deutz combustible gas engine plant purposely made one third of its heavy locomotives run on pure ethanol, which was then added to gasoline as an antiknock agent between 1925 and 1945. Safe and clean are arguably ethanol's main advantages.
The first generation of biofuels was ethanol. Microbes play a crucial role in the fermentation of such ethanol, which USES food or sugar cane as a starting material and is made from starch or sucrose. Bioethanol fermentation is the largest microbial fermentation process at present.
Ethanol can be blended with gasoline as a car fuel.  the United States has been selling ethanol gasoline for 20 years, and sorghum ethanol accounts for 10% of the gasoline in China.
Ethanol gasoline is also known as "e-type gasoline", China's use of ethanol gasoline is 90% of the ordinary gasoline and 10% of the fuel ethanol blended. It can improve the performance and quality of oil products, reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and other major pollutants emissions.
It is widely used for medical disinfection (75% 5% ethanol solution is commonly used for medical disinfection).
Generally 95% alcohol is used for instrument disinfection. 70 ~ 75% of the alcohol used for sterilization, such as 75% ethanol at room temperature (25 ℃), one minute can kill escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, candida albicans, white read aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc; Lower concentrations of alcohol are used to lower body temperature and improve local blood circulation.
But studies have shown that ethanol does not kill bacterial spores or hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis b. So ethanol can only be used for general disinfection, not up to the standard of sterilization.
Ethanol can also be used for food, such as wine. Because it is a good organic solvent, Chinese medicine USES it to dissolve most organic components of traditional Chinese medicine.
Effects of alcohol on the use of traditional Chinese medicine:
1, alcohol can be drug potential, the ancients said that "wine is the long of all drugs", alcohol can be drugs on the outside of the surface and as the top, so that the effect of regulating qi and blood medicine to get a better play, also can make tonic drugs fill without delay;
2. Alcohol helps to separate out the active ingredients of drugs, and many components of traditional Chinese medicine are easy to dissolve in alcohol;
3. Anti-corrosion effect.
After drinking alcohol, it soon enters the bloodstream through the capillaries of the stomach and small intestine.
Generally, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a drinker's blood reaches its maximum concentration within 30 to 45 minutes before gradually falling.
BAC in excess of 1000mg/L may cause significant ethanol intoxication.
Except for a small amount of ethanol that is not metabolized and is discharged directly through respiration and urine, most of the ethanol in the body needs to be decomposed by oxidation.
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays an important role in the metabolism of ethanol. It is mainly distributed in the liver, but also in the gastrointestinal tract and other tissues.
After ethanol passes through the blood to the liver, it is first oxidized to acetaldehyde by ADH, and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase can further catalyze acetaldehyde to acetic acid. In the liver, ethanol can also be decomposed by CYP2E1 enzyme.
People face flush after drinking, because skin caused by a temporary vasodilation, because these people have efficient ethanol dehydrogenase, can quickly to the alcohol in the blood into acetaldehyde, and acetaldehyde has let the function of the capillary expansion, will cause his face red and even flush red wait for a phenomenon, which usually says "my face". There is another enzyme - acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, drinking red face is only alcohol dehydrogenase without acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, so the rapid accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body and delayed metabolism caused.
The rate of ethanol metabolism mainly depends on the content of enzymes in the body.
If have these two kinds of enzymatic inside the person body, can decompose alcohol quickly, central nervous system gets the action of alcohol less, although drank the wine of certain amount consequently, also live peacefully. Ethanol dehydrogenases are found in all humans, and in most people the amount is about the same. But the lack of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase is more. The lack of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase makes acetaldehyde decompose slowly and remain in the body for a long time, so strictly speaking, the metabolic rate of alcohol cannot be described with an accurate rate, which varies from person to person.